We are thrilled that our green message is being picked up by other publications. Thank you Green Home Magazine for sharing our story. They have shared an electronic version. Click here and go to p.12 to see what a wonderful job they have done!
I was invited to an interactive seminar on the Green Economy a little while ago. I might have been the only person in the room who doesn’t make their living providing ‘green’ products and services or is in a job related to the green industry. So, as I had nothing but knowledge (and a few new friends) to gain I could sit back and take it all in. For what it’s worth, here is my take on the day: The conversation about the opportunities and constraints of the green economy revolved around what I’m thinking of as the three C’s: Consciousness, Compliance and Competitiveness. A slight departure from the 6 P’s of traditional marketing wisdom.
- Our reality is that there is not a huge level of green consciousness (yet). This applies to all socio economic levels. The average consumer is fairly illiterate about sustainability so if you want to build your market you need to invest in raising consciousness. The research is showing that consumers who are aware start to care more and are often prepared to pay slightly more for a comparable green product or service. I.e. ethics/personal values can be purchasing drivers.
- Although green consciousness is not yet all pervasive it is growing rapidly. Individuals and organisations are often conscious of the need to have a green image. This may or may not be driven by ethics, but it still represents an opportunity to vendors.
- The consciousness and ethics of the vendor will determine their own sustainability in the market. If any form of ‘green washing’ is practiced it is likely they will be exposed in time. Participants also need to take a good look at their own lifestyle. To what extent are they providing a positive model for green living? As Ghandi’s taught us “Be the change that you wish to see in the world”. Participants in the green economy who are living authentically green lives will be assured a more enthusiastic response from the marketplace.
- The global energy and water crises, coupled with the environmental imperative, are driving governments to legislate for change. For example, in South Africa our new SANS 10400 ensures far greener practices in the building sector. (Please see my post of 22 May to navigate some of those challenges). Other examples include mandatory recycling in many countries, controls in manufacturing processes, banning/control/disposal of substances, protection of ecosystems etc. etc. For each legal requirement there is a potential for green products and services to be offered. As individuals and organisations achieve compliance, they are consuming! The opportunities are growing at an exponential rate.
- It seems it really is time to stop limiting ourselves with the negativity around the notion that ‘green is too expensive’. People operating in the green economy need to start being a lot more creative in how they ‘sell’ the value of their offerings. (We already know that ‘preaching’ doesn’t always work!). As with all classic marketing practice, vendors need to be answering the question ‘what’s in it for me’. Strategizing for greater volumes at lower profit may also be an opportunity as there will always be a threshold at which the majority of people will not spend more.
Of course, with everything in life the 3 C’s are interconnected. As our consciousness grows, so does our green spend. As more green products and services become available so we consume more. In time even those without green consciousness will be green consumers whether by choice or not, as the ultimate truth is, that if we don’t all make the shift there won’t be much of anything left at all!
The seminar was hosted by alive2green.
Until very recently our building standards mainly focused on strength, stability, safety and the like. Your windows could be as large (or small) as you liked, as long as you could show they wouldn’t kill people (too easily). You could put in as much lighting, heating and air conditioning as your heart desired and you could heat your water in any way you cared to (just about). Rainwater that accumulated on your roof and other hard services as well as your waste water just needed to be routed into the municipal storm water systems.
This has all changed significantly under the recently released SANS (South African National Standards) 10400 regulations. And lots of professionals in the building industry have been caught on the hop! The domino effect has been delays in plans being approved, construction pushed out and in some instances halted, while everyone gets ‘up to speed’, certificated and educated. It seems that our government’s invitations to consultative processes were largely ignored so the new standards were implemented with little fanfare. It is only now that non-compliance is being identified by the authorities that architects, designers, builders and suppliers of goods and services to the industry are fast tracking their knowledge and skills. These standards are not a South African invention. In fact much of the science has been lifted from all the good work done in the rest of the world. We are actually lagging far behind and currently only have 30 Green Star Rated buildings to brag about. Our Green Building Council http://www.gbcsa.org.za has only been in existence since 2007.
So What is SANS 10400 all about?
Before I go any further with this post I must get my disclaimer in! I am not an expert on SANS 10400 and can only share the lessons I have learned with my own build. The standards themselves are complicated and require lengthy calculations. I have no plan to get into the nitty gritties of such, nor will I address the standards in a comprehensive way. My intention is to rather provide a general overview of what the key challenges are and offer some suggestions on navigating some of the worst bits.
As we are all aware we have an energy crisis in this country, because we’ve felt the pain of power cuts for protracted periods. We also have a water crisis and infrastructure problems but we haven’t had rolling water outages (yet) or major life taking floods due to overburdened storm water systems so we are still somewhat complacent. By the way, these problems are not unique to SA, they are of concern all over the planet. So essentially, the new regulations have been implemented to mitigate these problems.
Basically, these regulations are forcing all new builds and alterations to be a lot greener than before. Whether you are interested in building green or not, you won’t get your plans approved/passed until they achieve the minimum requirements. SANS 10400 needs to be read in conjunction with SANS 204 and they cover everything about buildings from safety, glazing, lighting, ventilation structural design etc. etc. I will be focusing on some of the issues contained in the Environmental Sustainability and Energy Usage sections (parts X and XA).
These standards may look very onerous but when one considers that 17% of our national energy is used in residential buildings and 10% in commercial ones it is clear that we need to be building a bit smarter. It’s also quite sobering to learn that the buildings globally are responsible for a third of CO2 emissions either in their construction or lifespan. The standards are also very complicated. South Africa is divided into different climatic zones (not always with sound logic is seems) as Durban (annual temperature range 16° – 28° C) and Mooi River ( 0.6°C – 24.2°C) are in the same zone. There are different standards for different building use and even different calculations to be applied for rooms relating to the different directions they face.
MY TOP TIPS
First and foremost you are going to need your intended architect and/or engineer to have been accredited by the Building Control Authority. Do not assume this is already so. Many professionals have attended various presentations etc. but unless you find their name on this website: http://www.buildingcontrol.co.za/page34.html they are not ‘deemed competent’ and your plans will not be approved. If they are this far behind the starting blocks you are in for a protracted process of referrals (declined plans). Best find someone who is qualified to do all the tricky calculations that are going to need to be done and generally up to speed on building green.
Glazing/fenestration/windows are always significant in building for reasons of comfort and aesthetics. If yours represent more than 15% of your wall area things are going to get complicated because you will potentially take more energy off the grid to cool and heat your building. Bottom line, you won’t be able to install standard single glazed windows. To put in larger windows, calculations will have to be done to justify the fenestration plans. These are based not only on the surface area but the type of glazing and framing proposed, your climactic zone etc. The overall aim is for your windows to let in as little heat as possible in summer (because you will then want to use air-conditioners) and let out as little heat in winter (because you will want to use heaters). The directional of the window is also part of the calculation. So basically, if you want big windows you may need to plan for some or all of the following to reduce your electricity draw : Low E-glazing (film applied to the glass), double or even triple glazing to improve thermal performance, awnings, shuttering and wooden frames rather than aluminium.
Don’t be naive (like me) and believe that the ancient huge trees shading your property will get factored into the calculations. I was feeling most upset that on one set of ‘referrals’ from council we were advised to install awnings on our very shaded outbuildings. I must confess to feeling rather foolish on taking pictures to council of the trees, cool and moist paving (close ups of moss included!) to have it pointed out that the next owner may just come and cut down the trees and therefore vegetation cannot feature in the calculations around fenestration. Makes sense from that perspective.
Fascinatingly, many of the new standards have come into being because of our energy crises, but if your building plans show that you are making provision to make your own via wind turbines or photo voltaic systems (our plan) you will not automatically get Brownie Points that enable you to have for example bigger windows. The evaluators at council do not have a formula that calculates a relaxation for you because you are generating your own energy. You might get quite a shock to learn that you need to put in double glazing (double the price) and even lose some of the windows planned. In other words you have not met the category Deemed-to-satisfy: This path to compliance is met by showing that various building features meet minimum requirements. These include glazing dimensions, insulation thickness and wall types.
To get special dispensation you will have to make a special case. Known as Rational assessment: This path to compliance allows the use of additional calculations to show that a building, irrespective of glazing size and insulation thickness, uses less energy than either a value provided by the XA standard, or a reference building that complies with the deemed-to-satisfy requirements. Phew!
Ok, so that jargon just means that if you live in Durban you need to get hold of an electrical engineer who will draw up a whole lot data showing your energy consumption, how much you will supply from your renewable sources and how much you may still need to draw from ESKOM. Please note, that it must be an electrical engineer, not your architect or your PVC supplier or your favourite blogger’s calculations. All of this will need to be notarised. Apparently, however, in the rest of the country this may not be the case as the code only requires only that this “competent person” be qualified on the basis of their experience and training. It is clear the implementation is not being applied consistently across the country!
Old fashioned electrical geysers are no longer an option. You will be required to install a greener alternative. You will find some useful information on my posts of December and January on solar and induction geysers and heat pumps.
Water Use, Re-use and Disposal
Because our storm water systems are under increasing pressure, water disposal on your property will be carefully scrutinized Your roof area and all your hard surfaces will be measured and depending on the type soil in your area (soil type permitting) you will in all likelihood be required to install an engineer designed soak pit. These can be very costly in addition to being detrimental to any plants you may have in the garden!
You might be skimming quickly over the paragraph above because you are patting yourself on the back for already making provision for massive volumes of rain water harvesting and storage. This you are going to use in the loos and showers and washing machine. In addition, you’ve planned to re-cycle your grey water to irrigate your organic veggies. You’ve consulted a water expert fundi like Alex Holmes http://www.pulawater.co.za who has drawn up charts and graphs to show rainfall and your water consumption and you know your excess is tiny. Your green halo is shining. So you’re exempt right? WRONG!! The evaluators do not have rainwater harvesting in their formula so you will need to make a special case for yourself if you want reduce the size of your soak pit. But do persevere. Talk to the Storm Water custodians at your local council (not the plan evaluators), make a case and back it up with hard figures and fingers crossed. There are many sustainable options that could be implemented.
Water management is such an important topic that is going to need its own post to do it justice so watch this space.
Bricks/block, roofing, insulation, pipe lagging (yes apparently we need insulation for pipes in a city that never gets cold) etc. etc. must be carefully considered. Many of the materials you use will have associated energy related numbers that may or may not be acceptable. There is a plethora of new products on the market. Please be very wary of ‘Green Washing’. Look for SA Bureau of Standards approval and other relevant ratings and or registrations.
I know that if you put together a competent team on your build and do your homework, you should be able to navigate these regulations with relative ease.
The Gorgeous Green House property was purchased about 4 years ago. In October 2011 the architects were briefed and it felt like the dream was beginning to materialize. Since then endless planning approval issues and delays have been taking their toll on general levels of energy and enthusiasm. I don’t want this space to be a whining forum so you will be spared the details until they can be condensed into a useful guide to navigate the new SANS (South African National Standards) 10400 building regulations. I decided I needed and injection of happiness and positivity and a reminder of what this project is all about.
I invited some special ‘green orientated’ friends for a picnic in the garden. We started with a stroll through the indigenous ‘forest’ to admire old trees and newly planted ones.
We marveled at an extraordinarily beautiful beetle then relaxed on the veranda and oohed and ahhed at the bird and butterfly life.
We ate a delicious picnic and talked about the future food that will be grown here, meals to be shared and parties to enjoy and about how absolutely fabulous this urban farm/nature reserve is and how utterly blessed my family is.
The house WILL come when the time is right 🙂
Thank you wonderful people. It really was a great reminder of the bigger picture and a bolster for the ongoing challenges we have in getting the house aspect of the project underway.
Eskom (South Africa’s national energy provider) has recently conducted a study comparing solar geysers to heat pumps
The conclusions drawn from the study were:
- Heat pumps achieve at least 80% of the savings possible with a comparable solar water heating system, but at far lower installation cost.
- Heat pumps are a cost effective technology for heating water in commercial applications.
They offer this graph to show the reduced payback period for heat pumps attributing it to the lower installation costs of heat pumps.
This appears to be a reliable endorsement of heat pumps, but here is what they don’t tell you:
- Eskom do subsidise heat pumps, but do absolutely no performance testing on them. Currently there are no heat pumps in South Africa with the SABS (South African Bureau of Standards) mark of approval. In the solar industry, all products on the subsidy programme had to be tested against SANS 1307 prior to being permitted on the programme.
- Heat pump providers claim they will save you 60% on your water bills. Possible yes, if every day was an optimum weather day with low humidity and high ambient temperatures. It is not realist for providers to claim a ratio of the heating provided over the electrical energy consumed (COP) of 3:1, it will average out at 1:1.5. This assumes you have purchased a quality machine and the large majority of the cheap heat pumps were actually designed as under floor heaters! To achieve water temperature of 55 degrees the pressure has to be raised from the 18 bar (which it was designed for) to the 38 bar setting. Making the compressor work at this level is a bit like placing a brick on the gas pedal of a V8. It’s going to fail!
- Heat pumps require a sanitary condenser. This ensures that in the event of a failure no contamination of your water occurs. When this happens in heat pumps without condensers, the smell of hot oil lingers in the hot water taps. For this reason Australia and New Zealand have banned non sanitized condenser units, no such restriction are applied in South Africa!
- Heat pumps are cheaper than solar geysers. Yes, but you still need to buy or connect your heat pump to an electrical geyser and that cost is seldom factored in to the comparison.
- Heat pump suppliers will tell you that because the sun doesn’t shine at night you will have a cold shower in the morning. Not true! A good quality solar system, correctly sized, is designed to supply 24hrs of hot water from 6hrs of sunshine.
- A final scary scenario to consider: you purchase a heat pump which fails. Your phone your insurance company who refute the claim because it in a non- SABS product. The plumber has disappeared because he bought a container from the east and is getting so many phone calls he’s ‘shut up shop’ and disappeared. Finally you phone Eskom, as your logic says they’ve provided a subsidy therefore perhaps can provide some sort of relief. They will refer you to point 6 on the subsidy form which states that they take no responsibility for the performance or quality of your heat pump!
You then go out and purchase a solar geyser!
The South African Mechanical Engineer VOL 62
So What’s the Problem With Eskom Power?
We’ve all been grumbling in recent years at Eskom’s unreliable provision of electricity and are aghast at recent tariff increases. Brace yourselves; Eskom is targeting an average annual increases of around 15% for the next five years. The rate you per kWh depends on how much you use.
Yet compared to global consumers our electricity bills are cheap. Europeans for example are paying 4 times as much.
Coal is the most polluting energy source on the planet, and the main cause of the world’s CO2 emissions. (In addition it spews out nitrous oxide (N20), hydrofluorocarbons (CFCs, HCFCs, and HFCs) and methane (CH4). These emissions trap the sun’s heat and warm the planet, adding to the earth’s natural greenhouse effect. Coal ash, the solid waste produced contains large quantities of toxic metals, including mercury, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, nickel, and selenium.
South Africa is the world’s fifth largest producer of coal, and is the sixth largest consumer on the planet.
The reality though is that the price we pay does not reflect our real cost. South Africa’s addiction to coal generated electricity (only 1% of our electricity is coming from renewable resources) has other externalised costs including the following:
Polluted water, massive use of water in production
Tunnels causing instability
Coal miners and local communities health and high mortality rate
Environment and eco-system degradation from the physical process of extracting the coal
Long term environment and eco-system degradation as a consequence of the greenhouse gases produced.
The University of Pretoria’s Business Enterprises unit has just released a report entitled The True Cost of Coal which clearly outlines the impact of continuing on this path. The projected externalised costs (the ones that don’t appear on your utility bill) for the proposed new Kusile mine alone are a whopping R60.6 billion (766,656,000.00 USD) a year! The same report outlines the benefits of the transition to renewables, including far greater job creation and potentially faster provision to communities who are as yet not connected to the grid. There are still 10 million South Africans without power (nearly 20% of us) and the technology is here to do it clean and safely.
But….How Much Will it Cost the Average Household to go Solar?
Before answering that question I urge you to look at your current energy costs. Scrutinize your electricity bill. Look at how many Kwh you are currently using. The Eskom table above could be a little misleading as my family is currently paying R1.02 (0.12 USD) per kWh. Calculate what you will be paying based on a 15% annual increase over the next say 10 – 15 years. Try not to fall off your chair in a dead faint!
Eskom have a nifty calculator on their website that allows you to drop in your current kWh consumption and it shows you what you are paying and how much you will pay next year. Go to http://www.eskom.co.za/c/53/tariffs-and-charges/ and click on the residential tariff comparison tool.
I worked out that if my family were to continue in our current very non-green house with our current shocking consumption of 1664 kWh per month our electricity spend over the next 10 years would be in the region of R694 995.93 (80367 USD). Over the next 13 years R1 236 697.00 (143 013.00 USD). Your own calculation may well provide similar impetus to explore alternatives! So clearly ‘dirty energy’ is costing us at all levels, but it still boils down to ‘what can I afford now’?
For several years I’ve had a minor obsession with the notion of ‘getting off the grid’. I would ask vendors at Sustainability Expo’s and the like “how much for a family of 5 to set up to get off the grid”? Five years ago the response would be a sorrowful shake of the head and responses like “maybe just aim to get your water heated and supply your lights”. If I pushed the numbers ranged around the 1 Million Rand (116 000.00 USD) mark. Fortunately the cost of photovoltaic (PV) cells is falling fast and some say that they will be at grid parity with Eskom by 2015. (David Lishitz: Our Power Station).
I’ve been researching options, talking to vendors and doing some sums. I recommend that you talk to www.solarsunsa.co.za who will walk your through the minefield of technicalities to help you understand your options. Please beware of the plethora of inferior imports.
I’ve worked my calculations based on an annual consumption of 6694 kWh which is feasible if you make some changes. For example, just switching to a solar geyser or heat pump can reduce your use by 40%. (Note: I plan to post a lot more all options to reduce energy consumption, including the hotly debated solar geyser vs heatpumps issue!).
The bottom line: to get 97% off the grid your costs (panels, inverters, batteries, display screen, controllers, installation/labour etc.) from a reputable provider will cost approximately R340 000.00 (39317.92 USD).
I know, I know!!! It’s a massive amount of money but if you plan to be in your home for a while you will get your money back by year 13.5 and thereafter you are laughing. Remember the 15% increases we are promised? The scenario in the previous paragraph plays out like this:
So sadly, it’s clear at this point that only the wealthy can afford to make the investment (and benefit from the longer term payback) but is this not true of most investments? Perhaps this is the way to view the opportunity? My sense is that if industry, government and private households just get this thing started volumes will drive costs in the right direction, enabling more and more people access, encouraging further price reductions etc. What will also create incentive is the ability to ‘sell back’ our excess energy when we have more than we need. This is standard in other first world countries so fingers crossed we will catch up soon.
So, if you’ve got the means to make this investment and want to look at the viability for yourselves where to start?
Designing Your Solar System
Assuming you have already reduced your energy usage via the usual switch to LED’s, energy efficient appliances, solar geysers/heatpumps, general energy conscious living etc. start talking to vendors in the industry about how they would put together a system for you and what the costs would be based on your kWh consumption. Ask for a range of quotes to take you from 60% – 95% ‘off the grid’.
You need to have a place to put your panels, and batteries, display screen and converters etc. That all needs to be planned for and a good specialist should advise. You will need an outside cupboard that is well ventilated.
Most vital to the success of the technology will be the amount of sun you are in a position to harvest.If you are concerned that your intended roof/wall/garden space gets too much shade you
can ask you vendor to install a Solar Path Finder to calculate how many kWh of energy you will be able to harvest at all months of the year. The first design of our Gorgeous Green House had the panels positioned in the shade of an ancient Albizia adianthifolia (Flat Crown tree), not good! Trevor Wheeler www.solarsunsa.co.za climbed up on our roof to put the Solar Path Finder in 3 places to take readings for us so we are now confident that our roof now facing North East is going to be right.
Don’t be put off if your are retrofitting and you roof line is wrong. One can get creative and brackets can be used to place them just about anywhere as the link shows: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vC-Xb3uaTk0
IOL Business Report SA Time: Fri Oct 05 2012 11:21:33 GMT+0200 (South Africa Standard Time) http://www.greenpeace.org/africa/en/News/news/The-True-Cost-of-Coal/
(http://www.precaution.org/lib/08/prn_is_coal_green.081106.htm) ( World Coal Association. 2010. Coal Statistics. http://www.worldcoal.org/resources/coal-statistics/